Changing images of Nyumba Kumi in Tanzania: Implications for youth engagement in countering violence at community level
The aim of this paper is to examine the resilience of community security (infra) structures by teasing out new images of Nyumba Kumi and the implications for youth involvement in countering violence in Tanzania. Drawing on empirical qualitative case studies from seven regions in Tanzania, this paper seeks to defend the argument that Nyumba Kumi has taken diverse forms in different contexts in order to remain a relevant community (infra) structure for addressing practical issues. The paper concludes that the diverse representations of Nyumba Kumi reflect both continuity and change in the effort of building institutional resilience. Importantly, emerging forms of Nyumba Kumi accommodate needs and interests of youth among other groups in the community, hence allowing for active engagement in countering violence at community level. The paper calls for strengthening various forms of community level structures such as Nyumba Kumi as spaces for formal and informal engagement of youth and other actors in countering violence in Tanzania.
Keywords: Nyumba Kumi, violence, youth, community (infra) structure, Tanzania
Richard F. Sambaiga, Lecturer, University of Dar es Salaam, Email: email@example.com
Andhoga, W. and MA vole, J. 2017. “Influence of Nyumba Kumi Community Policing Initiative on Social Cohesion among Cosmopolitan Sub Locations in Nakuru County”, International Journal of Social and Development Concern 1, 6/12: 6576.
Bienen, H. 1965. “National security in Tanganyika after the mutiny”, Transition, 21, 3946.
Bishop, T. and Amos, P. 2015. “Opportunities to improve road safety through ‘boda-boda’ Associations in Tanzania”, AFCAP. Available at URL: http://www.research4cap.org/Library/BishopAmos-Amend-Tanzania-2015 BodaAssocs + Final+ Report-AFCAPTAN2015G-v150616.pdf.Accessed on 20 February 2018.
Bourdieu, P. 1990. The Logic of Practice, translated by Richard Nice: Stanford University Press: Stanford.
Campbell, J.R. 2009. “Corruption and the one-party state in Tanzania: the view from Dar es Salaam, 1964-2000”, in H.G. West and P. Raman, eds. Enduring Socialism: Explorations of revolution and transformation, restoration and continuation. New York: Berghahn: 169-189.
Coser, L. A. 1977. Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in historical and social context. Harcour Brace Jovanovich: New York.
Christiansen, C., Utas, M., and Vigh, H. E., 2006. “Navigating Youth, Generating Adulthood.” In C. Christiansen, M. Utas, H. E. Vigh eds. Navigating Youth, Generating Adulthood: Social Becoming in an African Context. : Nordiska Africainstitutet : Uppsala.
Cross,C. 2013. Community Policing through Local Collective Action in Tanzania: Sungusungu to Ulinzi Shirikishi. A University of Sussex DPhil thesis, University of Sussex.
Cross, C. 2016. Ulinzi Shirikishi: Popular Experiences of Hybrid Security Governance in Tanzania”, Development and Change. 47 (5): 1102–1124.
Durham, D. 2000. “Youth and the Social Imagination in Africa.” Anthropological Quarterly 73 (3):113-120.
Fink, N. C., Romaniuk, P., and Barakat, R. 2013. Evaluating Countering Violent Extremism Programming: Practice and Progress, Center on Global Counterterrorism Cooperation.
Folke, C., S. Carpenter, B. Walker, M. Scheffer, T. Chapin, and J. Rockström. 2010. “Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability”, Ecology and Society 15(4):20.
Gunderson, L. H., S. R. Carpenter, C. Folke, P. Olsson, and G. Peterson. 2006. “Water RATs (resilience, adaptability, and transformability) in lake and wetland social-ecological Systems”, Ecology and Society 11,(1):16.
Gupta, J., C. Termeer, J. Klostermann, S. Meijerink, M. v. d. Brink, P. Jong, S. Nooteboom, and E. Bergsma. 2010. “The adaptive capacity wheel: a method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society”. Environmental Science and Policy 13:459–471.
Förster, T., Koechlin, L. 2011. The politics of Governance: Power and Agency in the Formation of Political Order in Africa. Basel Papers on Political Transformations, 1. Basel: Institute of Social Anthropology.
Halmashauri ya Jiji la Mwanza. 2017. Rasimu ya Sheria Ndogo (Ulinzi wa Umma).
Hastrup, K. 2003. “Violence, Suffering and Human Rights: Anthropological Reflections”, Anthropological Theory, 3,(3): 309-323.
Herrfahrdt-Pähle, E. and Pahl-Wostl, C. 2012. “Continuity and Change in Socialecological Systems: the Role of Institutional Resilience”. Ecology and Society 17,2: 8.
Honwana, A., De Boeck, F., eds. 2005. Makers and Breakers: Children and Youth in Postcolonial Africa. Oxford: James Curry.
Huitema, D., E. Mostert, W. Egas, S. Moellenkamp, C. Pahl-Wostl, and R. Yalcin. 2009. “Adaptive water governance: assessing the institutional prescriptions of adaptive (co-)management from a governance perspective and defining a research agenda”, Ecology and Society 14,(1):26.
Ingle, C. R. 1972. “The Ten-House Cell System in Tanzania: A Consideration of an Emerging Village Institution”. The Journal of Developing Areas, 6, (2): 211-226.
Ingold, T., Hallam, E. 2007. “Creativity and cultural improvisation: an introduction” .In E. Hallam, T. Ingold,eds. Creativity and Cultural Improvisation, Oxford: Berg.
Joas, H. 1996. The Creativity of Action. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Kazungu, S. 2013. “Protests as second pastor killed”, Daily Nation, October 21, 2013.
Kelly, A. and Lezaun, J. 2013. “Walking or Waiting? Typologies of the Breeding Ground in Malaria Control”, Science as Culture, 22 (1), 86-107.
Kioko, E. M. 2017. “Conflict Resolution and Crime Surveillance in Kenya: Local Peace Committees and Nyumba Kumi”, Africa Spectrum, 52,(1): 3–32.
Klerruu, Wilbert.1965. "Whys and Wherefores of the TANU Cell System", The Nationalist (September 20, 1965).
Maruo, S. 2007. ‘”Development of the Plantain-based Culture of the Nyakyusa of Southern Tanzania”, African Study Monographs, Suppl. 34: 21-38.
Musunga, A. 2015. “Need for a Gender Perspective in the fight Against Terror”. Avaiable at URL: www.kw.awfcs.org/article/ . Accessed on 20 January, 2018.
Nyerere, J. K. 1972. Decentralization Dar es Salaam, Government Printer.
Laycock, G. and N. Tilley .1995. “Policing and Neighbourhood Watch: strategic issues”, Crime Detection and Prevention Series Paper 60. London: Home Office.
Leach, E. R. 1977. Customs, Law and Terrorist Violence. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
LeSage, Andre. 2014. The Rising Terrorist Threat in Tanzania: Domestic Islamist Militancy and Regional Threats. Institute for National Strategic Studies. Washington DC.
Levine, K. 1972. “The TANU ten-house cell system”, In L. Cliffe and J. Saul,eds. Socialism in Tanzania. Volume 1. East African Publishing House: Dar es Salaam
Patterson, W. R. 2015. “Islamic Radicalization in Kenya”. Available at URL: http://ndupress.ndu.edu/Media/News/News-Article-View/Article/607564/jfq78- islamic-radicalization-in-kenya/.Accessed on 12 January 2018.
Purdeková, A. 2016. “Mundane Sights” of Power: The History of Social Monitoring and Its Subversion in Rwanda A Purdeková”, African Studies Review,59,2:59-89.
Rigby, P. 1977. “Local Participation in National Politics: Ugogo, Tanzania”, Journal of the International African Institute, 47, 1:89-107. Rosaldo, R., Lavie, S., Narayan, K. 1993. Introduction: Creativity in Anthropology.In S. Lavie, K. Narayan, R.
Rosaldo, eds. Creativity/Anthropology, ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Sambaiga, R. F. 2017. “Negotiating the future: Young graduates responding to career Uncertainty in Tanzania”. In N. Steur, M. Engeler and E. Macamo,eds. Dealing with Elusive Futures: University Graduates in Urban. Africa, Transcript: Culture and Social Practice.
Sambaiga, R. F. 2013. Sexual Inter-subjectivity and the quest for Social Well-being: an Ethnographic inquiry of adolescent sexuality and reproduction in Urban Southern Tanzania. PhD thesis. University of Basel.
Shivji, I. 1990. State Coercion and Freedom in Tanzania. Roma: National University of Lesotho.
SUMATRA. 2010. Transport Licensing (Motorcycles and Tricycles) Regulations. Available at: http://www.sumatra.or.tz/index.php/component/docman/doc_download/26-b ajaj- motor-cycle-andtricycle-regulations-new?Itemid=234 .Accessed on 13 February, 2018.
TPF. 2007. “Mabadaliko ya Msingi Ndani ya Jeshi la Polisi: Katika Kutekeleza Mkakati wa Polisi Tanzania Police Force. 2008. “Utaratibu wa Kuanzisha Vikundi vya Ulinzi Shirikishi katika Shehia, Mtaa, Kijiji na Kitongoji” TPF: Dar es Salaam.
URT. 1982. The Local Government (District Authorities) Act No.7. United Republic of Tanzania.
URT. 1982. The Local Government (Urban Authorities) Act No. 8. United Republic of Tanzania
Walker, B., L. Gunderson, A. Kinzig, C. Folke, S. Carpenter, and L. Schultz. 2006. “A handful of heuristics and some propositions for understanding resilience in social-ecological systems”, Ecology and Society 11(1):13.
Walwa, W.J. 2017. “Governing Security at the Grassroots Level: Effectiveness of Community Level Security Mechanisms in Tanzania”, The African Review, 44,1: 103-142.
Weber, M. 2011/1904. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Third Oxford Edition.
New Translation and Introduction by Stephen Kalberg. New York: Oxford University Press.
Weber, M. 1978. Economy and Society, Volume 1. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Copyright © by Department of Political Science and Public Administration, University of Dar es Salaam
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher, except for short extracts in fair dealing, for research or private study, critical scholarly review or discourse with an acknowledgement.
The African Review: A Journal of African Politics, Development and International Affairs [ISSN 0856-0056 (Print) & ISSN 1821-889X (Online)] is published bi-annually, June and December by the Department of Political Science and Public Administration, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35042 – Dar es Salaam – Tanzania