Challenges in Setting up Legal Frameworks for Natural Resources Governance in the East African Countries
The paper posits that the trend in the East African countries whereby the
governments have embarked upon developing policies and regulatory
institutions for the governance of the recently discovered extractive resources is
ill fated. The argument is that it is a quintessential to have in place an effective
legal framework to secure democratic governance over natural resources. The
paper proposes the underlying principles that can safeguard against patrimonial
disenfranchisement of the people in their ownership and control of natural
*Associate Professor, University of Dar es Salaam, E-mail: email@example.com
Adam, Christopher, and Anthony M. Simpasa. “Copper Mining in Zambia: From Collapse to Recovery.” In Plundered Nations? Successes and Failures in Natural Resource Extraction. UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
African Union. “Africa Mining Vision,” February 2009.
Ajakaiya, Olu, Paul Collier, and Akpan H. Ekpo. “Management of Resource Revenue : Nigeria.” In Plundered Nations? Successes and Failures in Natural Resource Extraction. UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
Bainomugisha, Arthur, Hope Kivengyere, and Benson Tusasirwe. “Escaping the Resource Curse and Making Poverty History: A Review of the Oil and Gas Policy and Legislative Framework for Uganda”.” ACODE Policy Research Series, 2006.
Barkan, Joel D, Jennifer G Cooke, Richard Downie, D.C.) Center for Strategic and International Studies (Washington, and Africa Program. Uganda: Assessing Risks to Stability : A Report of the CSIS Africa Program.
Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2011. http://csis.org/files/publication/110623_Barkan_Uganda_Web.pdf. “Briefing: Why Should Uganda Publish Extractive Contracts?” Global Witness, August 2014.
Christabel, Nyamwaya. “Benefits Sharing on Extractive Natural Resources with Society in Kenya.” Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, November 2013.
Collier, Paul, and Anthony Venables, eds. Plundered Nations?: Successes and Failures in Natural Resource Extraction. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
Energy and Water Utilities Regulatory Authority Act 2001, Act No. 11 § (2001).
Gauthier, Bernard, and Albert Zeufack. “Governance and Oil Revenues in Cameroon.” In Plundered Nations? Successes and Failures in Natural Resource Extraction, 27–78. UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
Kenya Environmental Conservation and Coordination Act 1999, Cap 387 § (1999). Kenya Forest Act 2005, Pub. L. No. No. 7 of 2005 (2005).
Kenya Income Tax Act 1974, Cap. 470 § (n.d.). Kenya Mining Act 1940, Cap. 309 § (1940). “Kenya Mining Investment Handbook.” Government of the Republic of Kenya, 2015. “Kenya National Energy and Petroleum Policy.” Government of the Republic of Kenya, 2015.
Kenya Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act 1986, Cap. 308 § (2012).
Kenya Petroleum Exploration and Production Regulations 1986, Rev 2012 § (n.d.). “Kenya Sessional Paper No. 4 on Energy.” Government of the Republic of Kenya, 2004.
Kenya Water Act 2002, Pub. L. No. No. 8 of 2002 (2002).
Lay, Taimour, and Mika Minio-Paluello. “Contracts Curse: Uganda’s Oil Agreements Place Profit Before People.” Kampala: PLATFORM & CSCO, February 2010.
Mhina, Mkombozi. “Transnational Investment, Human Rights and the Environment: A Cross-National Case Study Based On Mineral And Petroleum Industries In Selected Developing Countries.” University of Dar es Salaam, 2013.
Mutie, Brian. “Policy Gaps in Mining and Minerals Sector in Kenya.” Oliver Leaf Foundation, 2012. “National Oil and Gas Policy for Uganda.” Government of Uganda, February 2008.
Natural Resource Governance Institute. “Natural Resource Charter.” NRGI, n.d. Nyamwaya, Christabel. “Benefits Sharing on Extractive Natural Resources with Society in Kenya.” Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, November 2013.
Odari, Edgar, Davis Osoro, and Miriam Omolo, eds. A Primer to the Emerging Extractive Sector in Kenya: Resource Bliss, Dilemma or Curse. Nairobi, Kenya: Institute of Economic Affairs, 2014.
“Report of the Presidential Mining Review Committee to Advise the Government on Oversight of the Mining Sector.” Government of Tanzania, April 2008.
“Security and Human Rights in Kenya’s Extractives Sector.” Nairobi Process Initiative, February 2015.
Shepherd, Ben, and Royal Institute of International Affairs. Oil in Uganda: International Lessons for Success, 2013.
Sivi-Njonjo, Katindi, ed. Local Communities in Kenya’s Extractive Sector: From Paternalism to Partnership. Norwegian Church Aid, 2015.
Tanzania Environmental Management Act 2004, Act No. 20 § (2004).
Tanzania Extractive Industries (Transparency and Accountability) Act, Act No. 23 § (2015).
Tanzania Mining Act 2010, Act No. 14 § (2010). Tanzania Mining (Mineral Rights) Regulations 2010 (n.d.).
“Tanzania Mining Policy 1997.” Government of Tanzania, 1997. Tanzania Oil and Gas revenues Management Act, Act No. 22 § (2015).
Tanzania Parliament. Tanzania Income Tax Act, Pub. L. No. Act No. 11, 332 Cap. 332 (2004). ———.
Tanzania Petroleum Act, 2015, Pub. L. No. Act No. 21 (2015).
Tanzania Petroleum Act 2008, Act No. 4 § (2008).
Tanzania Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act 1980, Pub. L. No. Act No. 27, Cap. 328 (1980).
“The Mineral Policy of Tanzania.” Government of Tanzania, 2009.
Tumusiime, Frank. “Oil and Gas Laws in Uganda: A Legislators’ Guide.” International Alert, Uganda. Kampala: International Alert, Uganda, n.d. Uganda Income Tax Act, Cap. 340 § (n.d.). Uganda Investment Code Act 1991, Cap. 92 § (n.d.). Uganda Land Act 1998, Act No. 16 § (1998).
Uganda National Environment Act 1995, Cap. 153 § (n.d.). Uganda National Forestry and Tree Planting Act 2003, Act No. 8 § (2003).
Uganda Petroleum Act 1957, Cap. 149 § (n.d.). Uganda Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act 1985, Cap. 150 § (n.d.).
Uganda Petroleum (Exploration and Production) (Conduct of Exploration Operations) Regulations, Statutory Instrument No. 150-1 § (n.d.).
Uganda Petroleum Supply Act 2003, Act No. 13 § (2003).
Uganda Water Act 1997, Cap. 152 § (n.d.).
Uganda Wildlife Act 1996, Cap. 200 § (n.d.).
Copyright © by Department of Political Science and Public Administration, University of Dar es Salaam
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher, except for short extracts in fair dealing, for research or private study, critical scholarly review or discourse with an acknowledgement.
The African Review: A Journal of African Politics, Development and International Affairs [ISSN 0856-0056 (Print) & ISSN 1821-889X (Online)] is published bi-annually, June and December by the Department of Political Science and Public Administration, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35042 – Dar es Salaam – Tanzania